78 Skills that will be Difficult to Automate

by | Mar 30, 2017 | Future of Work

Thomas Frey Futurist Speaker 78 skills that will be difficult to automate

Recently my wife Deb and I were eating at a local sushi restaurant, watching the itamae (sushi chefs) carefully preparing each meal.

In Japan, becoming an itamae of sushi requires years of on-the-job training and apprenticeship.

For this reason, I asked Deb if she would prefer eating sushi that was prepared by humans or the same kind of meals prepared by machines. After thinking about it for a bit, she said that she’d prefer having a human chef because she liked the inconsistencies that go along with having a person at the cutting board.

For her, machines meant perfect consistency and perfectly prepared meals and that was less appealing than a human-centric operation with randomness added to the equation.

The key point here is that when it comes to automation, the marketplace will decide, and the market is not always logical.

  • We still go to concerts even though listening to prerecorded music at home is safer, more comfortable, and oftentimes better quality.
  • We still go to museums even though we can witness most of the images online without having to wait in lines and fight crowds.
  • We still go to coffee shops even though we can brew the same kind of coffee at home for far less money.

In each of these cases, the value of the experience far outweighs the incongruity of decisions being made.

Simply put, we live in a human-based economy, and humans are not always logical.

Thomas Frey Futurist Speaker What role will robots play in your future

The Irrational Human

Will a robot’s smile ever be as comforting as a mother’s smile?

If a robot tells you you’re beautiful, will that ever mean as much as when your boyfriend or girlfriend says it?

It’s easy to start listing all the so-called inferior traits that people have. Robots don’t sweat, complain, have to urinate, take breaks, get angry, or make mistakes.

We generally don’t design machines to be cruel, insulting, lazy, vindictive, violent, irrational, clumsy, greedy, envious, hotheaded, power-hungry, selfish, shy, tactless, superficial, or stupid.

However, humans come with a number of positive characteristics to offset all the negative ones. We can also be friendly, helpful, charming, warmhearted, risk-taking, courageous, empathetic, inspiring, bold, brilliant, resourceful, benevolent, gracious, humble, and forgiving.

When it comes to designing machines to replace humans, we often forget how enormously complex we are.

We have a need to compete, a need to belong, a sense of purpose, we crave attention, love, sex, importance, and the human touch. We must never underestimate the power of the human touch.

Thomas Frey Futurist Speaker Every human deficiency creates a new market

The Human Economy

Yes, we are all flawed individuals, and as such, we have a number of basic needs.

We need things like water, food, shelter, clothing, safety, and security. Once those needs are met, a number of other needs kick in like our need for belonging, companionship, love, intimacy, and family.

As our lower level needs are met, we move up Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to things like self-respect, self-esteem, status, fame, recognition, power, and freedom.

While on the surface we come across as incomplete beings, lacking in so many areas, the reality is that our needs are what drives our economy.

Every human deficiency creates a new market.

Grocery stores wouldn’t exist if we didn’t need food. The housing industry wouldn’t exist if we didn’t need shelter and safety. The automobile industry wouldn’t exist without our need for power, status, and freedom.

Ironically, the reason robots exist is to support our basic human needs.

Robots, on the other hand, do not have the same kind of needs.

The Great “Either-Or” Debate

Will we buy music that’s generated by machines or music produced by humans?

Will we buy machine-made art, watch a robo-ballet, attend a car race with only driverless cars, or sit in a stadium to watch robo-athletes?

In virtually all of these cases, we’ll choose to do both. Certainly we will mostly choose one over the other, but we’ll buy human art along with robo-art. We’ll attend a human-run restaurant one day and a robo-restaurant the next. We’ll cheer on our favorite human team with one set of friends and cheer on our favorite robo-athletes with another.

We will also love some robots and hate others.

We don’t live in an “either-or” world. Rather, our human culture has grown up around a more inclusive “both-and” economy.

Yes, these new options will compete with each other, causing fewer restaurant workers per restaurant, and fewer artists and musicians to fill today’s demands. However, as demand increases, we may actually have more people working in these fields.

Our struggle will be to find the optimal balance. The best restaurant owners will use robots to gain efficiency; the best artists will use robots to produce far more art; and the best musicians and athletes to play with robots instead of play against them.

Tasks and Skills that will be Difficult to Automate

When we factor all of this thinking into a few practical guidelines, the safest jobs will form around:

  • Complex systems too expensive to automate
  • Creative endeavors that only humans can appreciate
  • Human to human interactions that produce an emotional response
  • Decisions that need human-based reasoning
  • Complicated outputs that demand a human translator
  • Situations that require the human touch
  • Settings where the loyalty of hacker-proof humans is preferable over digital machines
  • Human to human valuations
  • Positions where humans control robots
  • Human to human competition

As I step through this list, please understand that I’m talking about things that will be “difficult” to automate, but probably not impossible.

Once again, it boils down to this question. Given a choice, will people prefer food that is made by humans or food that is made by machines?

Thomas Frey Futurist Speaker Farmbots are beginning to take center stage in the global ag world

Complex systems too expensive to automate

While there may be no such thing as a “complex system too expensive to automate,” the more complex the system, the more humans will be involved to oversee potential breaking points.

1.    Space launches

2.    Asteroid mining

3.    Nanotech research

4.    Deep ocean research

5.    Demographic studies

6.    Linguistics analysis

7.    Material science

8.    Failure analysis

Creative endeavors that only humans can appreciate

We have a great love for what creative people produce. Invariably we will use machines to help in these endeavors, but there will always be people directing the effort.

9.    Artistic performances – painting, sculpting, dance, and design

10. Musical performances

11. Poetry

12. Fashion designers

13. Interior designers

14. Industrial designers

15. Beauty parlors

16. Reputation designers and managers

Human to human interactions that produce an emotional response

These may seem like tiny pieces of humanity, but the value of these nuanced interfaces play an extraordinary role in our relational experiences.

17. An encouraging smile

18. A persuasive argument

19. A personal handshake

20. A hug

21. A romantic kiss

22. A convincing sales pitch

23. A massage

24. Multiple facets of sexual relations and procreation

Decisions that need human-based reasoning

As our capabilities grow, we will see an ever-increasing need for ethical oversight. Our ability to destroy things will soon exceed our ability to create things, and we’ll need ever-vigilant watchdogs to protect humanity.

25. Creation of new laws, policies, and regulation

26. Government oversight

27. Basic troubleshooting

28. Business planning

29. Marketing strategies

30. Managing animal shelters

31. Child care workers

32. Basic and advanced problem solving

Complicated outputs that demand a human overseer or translator

As the number of sensors increase and the amount of data we’ll be dealing with on a daily basis exceeds human ability to comprehend, we’ll begin to automate the analysis. However, there will still be a need for human oversight to manage all the exceptions and edge cases.

33. Doctors and medical diagnosis

34. Data analytics

35. Judges and legal systems

36. Business executives

37. Privacy advocates and experts

38. Relationship building strategies

39. Birthing processes

40. Genealogical mapping

Situations that require the human touch

Humans are social creatures by nature, and strong social bonds invariably require human touch.

41. Teaching someone to sing, dance, or juggle

42. Teaching someone how to gracefully enter a room

43. Teaching someone how to win a debate

44. Teaching someone why it’s important to take a bath

45. Teaching someone to do gymnastics

46. Teaching someone to make a reasonable decision

47. Teaching someone the value of human life

Settings where the loyalty of hacker-proof humans is preferable over digital machines

Fallible humans may not seem like the strongest link in a secure system but in many cases they become a crucial disconnected node in an otherwise hackable digital structure.

48. Guarding the President (or other important people)

49. Holding a secret

50. Personal confidant

51. Safeguarding corporate knowledge

52. Robot displacement specialists

53. Robot consultants

54. Robot lobbyists

55. Leaders of robot resistance groups

Human to human valuations

Since robots do not value objects the ways humans do, or make decisions about what constitutes a fair price on a product, the need for human value judgments will continue to be important.

56. Buying stocks or commodities

57. Voting

58. Government policy decisions

59. Decisions to act on a policy violation

60. Buyers

61. Purchasing agents

62. Product and service ratings

63. Surveys and polls

Positions where humans control robots

There are many positions where people will use robots as tools and evolve along with their industries, growing with each new productivity advancement.

64. Business owners and managers

65. Software designers and coders

66. System engineers

67. Product designers

68. Robot maintenance and repair

69. Robot configuration specialists

70. Robot test technicians

71. Auctioneer that specializes in selling robots

Human to human competition

We’re much more interested in our standing among other humans over how we compare to robots.

72. Popular sports (i.e. football, basketball, soccer)

73. Olympics and Paralympics

74. Popularity competitions (i.e. beauty pageants, elections, etc.)

75. Loyalty programs

76. X-Prize competitions

77. Startup funding pitches

78. Conflict resolution

Thomas Frey Futurist Speaker is this what we should expect from the robot revolution

Final Thoughts

One of my readers, BJ Brown, recently passed along the following story:

When I was in northwestern Canada in the 70’s I ask one of the locals why they still used dogs instead of snowmobiles. He replied, “When I’m out in bad conditions, the dogs have as much stake in getting home as I do. The snowmobile doesn’t care.”

Will robots ever truly care?

Contrary to popular belief, most robot and AI systems currently act as a complement to humans rather than a replacement them.

According to most experts, we are still years away from general artificial intelligence and full automation. But eventually, there will come a day where robots will perform most tasks and the role of humans in the production cycle will become marginalized.

My goal in writing this was not to develop an exhaustive list of “safe jobs,” but rather to create tools for thinking about the human role in our future.

Robots are coming. They’re coming with or without our blessing, and in shapes and forms we can’t even imagine.

But they also come with limits, limits that we will soon discover along the way.

  NOTE: Translation into Portuguese for Homeyou.com.

By Futurist Thomas Frey

Author of “Epiphany Z – 8 Radical Visions for Transforming Your Future

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78 Skills that will be Difficult to Automate

by | Mar 30, 2017 | Future of Work

I was thoroughly intrigued when I found out the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado was offering a degree in asteroid mining.

Yes, the idea of extracting water, oxygen, minerals, and metals from an asteroid sounds like science fiction to most people, but it’s not that far away.  In fact, Colorado School of Mines’ newly launched “Space Resources” program will help people get in on the ground floor.

After thinking about the proactive nature of this approach, it became abundantly clear how backward thinking most colleges have become.

When colleges decide on a new degree program, they must first recruit instructors, create a new curriculum, and attract students. As a result, the talent churned out of these newly minted programs is the product of a 6-7 year pipeline.

For this reason, anticipatory-thinking institutions really need to be setting their sights on what business and industries will need 7-10 years from now.

The Risk-Averse Nature of Education

When Harvard professor Clayton M. Christensen released his best-selling book, The Innovator’s Dilemma, his core message that disruptive change is the path to success, was only partially embraced by higher education.

While many were experimenting with MOOCs and smart whiteboards, changes in the subject matter of their courses still evolved at the traditional pace of discovery.

This is not to say colleges are not innovative. Rather, the demands of today’s emerging tech environment are forcing business and industries to shift into an entirely new gear. And that most definitely includes our academic institutions.

From a management perspective, it’s far easier to oversee a contained system where all variables are constrained. But during times of change, we tend to give far more power to the “unleashers,” who are determined to test the status quo and release ideas and trial balloons to see what works.

For this reason, managers and creatives often find themselves on opposing sides, and the winners of these warring factions often determine what we as consumers see as the resulting ripples of change.

Offering Pilot Programs

When Facebook bought Oculus Rift in March 2014 for $2 billion, the job boards went crazy, as there was an instant uptick in the demand for VR designers, engineers, and experience creators. But no one was teaching VR, and certainly not the Oculus Rift version of it.

Colleges have a long history of being blindsided by new technologies:

  • When eBay launched, no one was teaching ecommerce strategies
  • When Myspace launched, no one was teaching social networking
  • When Google launched, no one was teaching online search engine strategies
  • When Uber launched, no one was teaching sharing economy business models
  • When Apple first opened their App Store, no one was teaching smart phone app design
  • When Amazon first allowed online storefronts, no one was teaching the Amazon business model
  • When YouTube first offered ways to monetize videos, no one was teaching it

Since most academic institutions are only willing to put their name on programs with long-term viability, the endorsement of half-baked agendas does not come easy. However, that is exactly what needs to be done.

Colleges can no longer afford to remain comfortably behind the curve.

52 Future College Degrees

As a way of priming your thinking on this matter, here are 52 future degrees that forward-thinking colleges could start offering today:

  1. Space Exploration – space tourism planning and management
  2. Space Exploration – planetary colony design and operation
  3.  Space Exploration – next generation space infrastructure
  4. Space Exploration – advanced cosmology and non-earth human habitats
  5. Bioengineering with CRISPR – policy and procedural strategies
  6. Bioengineering with CRISPR – advanced genetic engineering systems
  7. Bioengineering with CRISPR – operational implementations and system engineering
  8. Bioengineering with CRISPR – ethical regulation and oversight
  9. Smart City – autonomous traffic integration
  10. Smart City – mixed reality modeling
  11. Smart City – autonomous construction integration
  12. Smart City – next generation municipal planning and strategy
  13. Autonomous Agriculture – robotic systems
  14. Autonomous Agriculture – drone systems
  15. Autonomous Agriculture – supply chain management
  16. Autonomous Agriculture – systems theory and integration
  17. Swarmbot – design, theory, and management
  18. Swarmbot – system engineering and oversight
  19. Swarmbot – municipal system design
  20. Swarmbot – law enforcement and advanced criminology systems
  21. Cryptocurrency – digital coin economics
  22. Cryptocurrency – crypto-banking system design
  23. Cryptocurrency – regulatory systems and oversight
  24. Cryptocurrency – forensic accounting strategies
  25. Blockchain – design, systems, and applications
  26. Blockchain – blockchain for biological systems
  27. Blockchain – large-scale integration structures
  28. Blockchain – municipal system design strategies
  29. Global Systems – system planning, architecture, and design
  30. Global Systems – large-scale integration strategies
  31. Global Systems – operational systems checks and balance
  32. Global Systems – governmental systems in a borderless digital world
  33. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - drone film making
  34. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle – command center operations
  35. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle – municipal modeling and planning systems
  36. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle – emergency response systems
  37. Mixed Reality - experiential retail
  38. Mixed Reality – three-dimensional storytelling
  39. Mixed Reality – game design
  40. Mixed Reality – therapeutic systems and design
  41. Advanced Reproductive Systems – designer baby strategies, planning, and ethics
  42. Advanced Reproductive Systems – surrogate parenting policy and approaches
  43. Advanced Reproductive Systems – organic nano structures
  44. Advanced Reproductive Systems – clone engineering and advanced processes
  45. Artificial Intelligence – data management in an AI environment
  46. Artificial Intelligence – advanced human-AI integration
  47. Artificial Intelligence – streaming AI data services
  48. Artificial Intelligence – advanced marketing with AI
  49. Quantum Computing – data strategies in a quantum-connected world
  50. Quantum Computing – quantum-level encryption and security
  51. Quantum Computing – quantum computing implementation strategies
  52. Quantum Computing – AI-quantum system integration

Final Thought

More so than any time in history, we have a clear view of next generation technologies. Naturally, we’re still a long way from 100% clarity, but for most of the technologies listed above, the shifting tectonic plates of change can be felt around the world.

Without taking decisive action, colleges run the risk of being circumvented by new types of training systems that can meet market demands in a fraction of the time it takes traditional academia to react.

The ideas I’ve listed are a tiny fraction of what’s possible when it comes to emerging tech degrees. Should colleges stick their neck out like Colorado School of Mines and offer degrees that may not be immediately useful? Adding to that question, how many college degrees are immediately useful today?

I’d love to hear your thoughts on this topic.

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